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This paper is not for publication or distribution in England or Wales because certain of the points raised are aspects of current litigation. This paper is copyright, 1995, to Jonathan Caven-Atack. Copies may be made for private study without profit. All other rights are reserved.
The view from the lion's den.
By Jon Atack
This paper was delivered at the Dialog Centre
I resigned from the Church of Scientology in 1983, and began to interview other former members and collect court documents and testimony relating to Scientology. Seven years later, my book A Piece of Blue Sky [Click here for the text ZIP-file, 352 KB] was published, after a court battle in New York. Former Hubbard aide, Robert Vaughn Young whose excellent article was published in a recent Spiegel magazine has called my book the definitive work on Scientology. I have spoken with literally hundreds of former members, and read tens of thousands of pages of records and court documents, ranging from Hubbard's college and navy records through to the revelations of high-ranking defectors as recorded in sworn testimony. I have endeavoured to make this information a matter for urgent public debate.
My quest to understand and to help the many people damaged by Scientology has led me to public humiliation and bankruptcy. I have been the target of a massive campaign of harassment and vilification. Because I would not give up my right to free speech and open public debate, scientologists have set out to destroy me. I have been a tiny David oppressed by a Goliath of dreadful proportions. Scientology has tens of thousands of followers and hundreds of millions of dollars. I have only my desire for the truth and my belief in humanity.
In England, Scientology has cynically used the establishment, making it an unwitting collaborator in my devastation. It is no exaggeration to say that justice and freedom are at stake in this battle. In Britain, the media seem afraid to tell my story.
Thankfully, Germany has learned the terrible danger of totalitarian cults and currently leads the world in exposing their evils. This year, German courts have stripped Scientology of its religious status and its tax exemption. They have ordered Scientology to reregister as a business and to pay its staff a proper wage. Both politicians and the press have been outspoken in their criticism of this malicious sect.
The French too have withdrawn tax exemption and religious status. The Danes have withdrawn missionary status. A major prosecution is about to occur in Spain, following another in Italy. In Canada, Scientology has recently been forced to pay $3 million in the largest libel award in the history of that country. But let me start by relating some of my own experiences, before moving on to the hidden policies which motivate Scientology's hysterical attack upon democracy.
At the end of 1992, scientologists started to arrive uninvited on my doorstep. They always came in pairs, a new pair each time. The visits happened about once a week, but not on the same night. The timing of the visits varied, with the latest being after 11 o'clock. The first couple accused me of "persecuting" their religion. When I asked for details, one of them said that I had told a newspaper that Scientology "brainwashed" its members. I explained that the journalist had given his own opinion. I tend to avoid the emotive term "brainwashing" and speak instead of "coercive psychology". Having failed in the particular, they moved on to the general. I was accused of being a liar. Unable to give any example of a lie I had told, one began chanting hysterically "you tell lies".
In Scientology, this phrase would be called a "button".(2) After careful analysis, the member of Scientology's Investigation bureau who drilled these scientologists, had decided that I would be upset by this particular accusation. "Buttons" used on subsequent visits included the accusation that I am a "failure" and a practitioner of "deprograming". All of the meetings started with my attempt at reasoned dialogue and finished with screaming scientologists parroting drilled phrases.
Such behaviour is always alarming. Although the "buttons" may not create the desired psychological collapse, the fanatical intolerance and incapacity to enter dialogue evidenced in such meetings is disturbing. But then, the creator of Scientology gave as an aspect of "religious scripture" the dictum "Don't ever defend. Always attack."
It is very important to understand that all of Hubbard's spoken and written words are considered unalterable(3) and scriptural.(4) Further, they must be complied with absolutely, to do otherwise is given the highly derogatory label "squirreling".(5) Another tenet of Hubbard's "scripture" is that all opponents of Scientology are criminals with undisclosed crimes. It should be a matter of some amazement to scientologists given this prediction that I have managed to criticise Scientology for twelve years without spending any time in prison or being charged with any crime. In that time, however, scientologists have been convicted in several countries.
The phobic attitude towards critics and the refusal of dialogue characterize totalist groups or destructive cults. Scientologists are taught that anyone who seeks to dissuade them from Scientology is "suppressive".(6) If the criticism cannot be silenced, then the scientologist should cease all communication with the critic, or "disconnect"(7). Any criticism of Scientology is held to stem from undisclosed "overts" or moral transgressions. The critic is asked "what are your crimes?" This can be upsetting to the mystified parent of a raging scientologist.
If a scientologist hears any criticism of Scientology or its creator, that criticism must be relayed to Scientology's "Ethics" department in a written "knowledge report". Further, Scientologists are forbidden discussion of the techniques of Scientology (called "verbal technology"(8)), the penalty for which is being "declared" a "Suppressive Person", and being ostracised by other scientologists, under the policy of "disconnection". Scientologists are also enjoined not to talk about any of their problems except to their appointed Scientology "auditor". They pay up to $1,000 per hour to discuss such problems.(9) While Hubbard insisted that Scientology's main focus is enhancing communication, he actually spent a great deal of time restricting it.
The most controversial doctrine of Scientology is undoubtedly the Fair Game law. Hubbard was well aware that this expression refers to the medaieval practice of labelling an individual "a legitimate object of pursuit and attack", with the word "game" meaning "quarry".(10) Hubbard actually used the expression in its correct sense in a 1940s science-fiction story before his first excursions into psychotherapy and religion.(11) Fair Game highlights the essential contradiction which dwells at the very heart of Scientology. Scientology is supposedly a system which increases its adherents ability to communicate and thereby raises their "affinity" for others. Scientology is meant to make people more friendly.(12) But in the Fair Game doctrine, Hubbard said that opponents "may be tricked, sued or lied to or destroyed."(13)
The Hubbard Policy Letter which introduced Fair Game asserted that individuals considered Suppressive Persons could be the subject of "1st degree murder, arson, disintegration of persons or belongings".(14) Although this Policy Letter was withdrawn from public view within days of its publication, it continued to appear on Intelligence training courses,(15) and in 1980 governing officials of Scientology admitted during court proceedings that it had never been "abrogated".(16) Further, the 1980 Policy Letter(17) which did abrogate it was itself withdrawn in 1983.(18) Consequently, Fair Game remains a binding "scripture" of Scientology.(19)
Hubbard's vindictive nature had found outlets long before he published the Fair Game law. For example, in 1952, Don Purcell, who had earlier rescued Hubbard from financial collapse, was accused of having taken $500,000 from the American Medical Association to destroy Dianetics. Hubbard churned out hate letters using a mailing list stolen from Purcell.(20)
In a bizarre 1955 article, Hubbard wrote "The defence of anything is untenable. The only way to defend anything is to attack". This article also ordered Scientology organizations to use the law to "harass".(21)
By 1959, Hubbard had created an intelligence system for monitoring friends and enemies alike, and instituted new procedures for harassing perceived opponents. This came with the internal publication of his secret Hubbard Communications Office Manual of Justice.(22) The Hubbard Communications Office was an early attempt at creating an intelligence agency.(23) Copyright lapsed in the booklet in the 1980s,(24) so it can now be freely reprinted and quoted from.
In the Manual of Justice, Hubbard wrote "People attack Scientology; I never forget it, always even the score." He went on to describe one of the functions of his Communications Office, "Intelligence is mostly the collection of data ... It is basically a listening and filing action. It is done all the time about everything and everybody."
On June 10, 1960, Hubbard issued a seemingly innocent Bulletin saying that not all scientologists need be professional "auditors", or counsellors. He encouraged his followers to bring Scientology to the society through their jobs. He praised those who had already exerted influence: "These people ... drove a wedge for themselves into companies, societies, with Scientology and then took over control of the area."(25) On 23 June, Hubbard extended his design with the Special Zone Plan:
"A nation or state runs on the ability of its department heads, its governors, or any other leaders. It is easy to get posts in such areas ... Don't bother to get elected. Get a job on the secretarial staff or the bodyguard ... don't seek the co-operation of groups. Don't ask for permission".(26)
Hubbard went on to give the example of a police officer quietly intruding Scientology into his workplace. In the 1970s, a San Diego police lieutenant was disciplined for using police computers on behalf of Scientology.(27) In the 1990s, the president of Finland dismissed his scientologist bodyguard.
Back in 1960, Hubbard proceeded to establish Special Zone Departments in all Scientology organizations to co-ordinate the efforts of Scientologists to infiltrate the society. Only two months later, this Department was incorporated into the Department of Government Affairs.(28) Hubbard wrote,
"The object of the Department is to broaden the impact of Scientology upon governments and other organizations ... defensive tactics are frowned upon in the department ... Only attacks resolve threats ... If attacked on some vulnerable point by anyone ... always find or manufacture enough threat against them to cause them to sue for peace".
Hubbard then repeated one of the central tenets of his "religious scripture": "Don't ever defend. Always attack".
Hubbard had rallied his followers to surreptitiously spread his influence. Now they were to be part of an organization with a dangerous agenda:
"The goal of the Department is to bring the government and hostile philosophies or societies into a state of complete compliance with the goals of Scientology. This is done by high level ability to control and in its absence by low level ability to overwhelm. Introvert such agencies. Control such agencies."
The Department of Government Affairs was superseded by the Department of Official Affairs on 13 March 1961.(29) The memoranda relating to infiltration and control of governments remained in force, as they do to this day. The new Department was charged with maintaining files "relating to Scientology and anti-Scientology groups, persons and activities". Hubbard blithely continued "we have here in actuality the equivalent of a Ministry of Propaganda and Security". Elsewhere, Hubbard candidly defined propaganda as "putting out slanted information".(30) This Ministry of Propaganda and Security was to bring hostile groups into line by "finding and releasing the truth about the leader of that group".
The policy of infiltration was repeated:
"The action of bringing about a pro-Scientology group consists of making a friend of the most highly placed government person one can reach, even placing Scientologists in domestic and clerical posts close to him".
Hubbard continued the theme of the June 1960 memoranda: "Get volunteer Scientologists interested in this game and helping." As professor of sociology Roy Wallis said in his study of Scientology, members readily become "deployable agents of the cult".(31)
"The 'news' that some lord is 'going to ask a question in the House...' gives us this planning ... Get a detective on that lord's past to unearth the tid-bits ... Stress sex and blood in psychiatry and collect data and mount an all out attack in the press." (32)
"Don't ever tamely submit to an investigation of us. Make it rough, rough on the attackers all the way."
Having investigated critics for "FELONIES or worse using own professionals, not outside agencies", scientologists should
"Start feeding lurid, blood sex crime actual evidence on the attackers to the press [punctuation sic]."
"I speak from 15 years experience in this. There has never yet been an attacker who was not reeking of crime. All we had to do was look for it and murder would come out."(33)
"TO HELP LRH [=Hubbard] INVESTIGATE PUBLIC MATTERS WHICH SEEM TO IMPEDE HUMAN LIBERTY SO THAT SUCH MATTERS MAY BE EXPOSED AND TO FURNISH INTELLIGENCE REQUIRED IN GUIDING THE PROGRESS OF SCIENTOLOGY [emphasis in original]".(34)
The new department was to be "wholly composed of professional investigators". Hubbard asserted "the section has all the useful functions of an intelligence and propaganda agency." Targets were easy to find, as Hubbard explained:
The first private detective Hubbard tried to hire was so horrified by Hubbard's intentions that he immediately gave the story to the newspapers(35). So two weeks after its inaugeration, the Public Investigation Section was transformed into the infamous Guardian's Office of the Church of Scientology.(36) Under Hubbard's direction, the Guardian's Office came to control all of Scientology's legal, public relations and intelligence activities.(37) It also controlled all finances, with an Assistant Guardian posted to every organization. Hubbard's wife was made the full-time Controller of the Guardian's Office, a position which she held from 1966 to 1981, shortly before she was imprisoned in the U.S.(38)
The Guardian's Office - or GO - inherited the intelligence files of its predecessors. It also inherited several Hubbard techniques, including "noisy investigation". This method of harassment was mentioned in the 1959 Manual of Justice, "When we need somebody haunted we investigate ... When we investigate we do so noisily always. And usually mere investigation damps out the trouble even when we discover no really pertinent facts ... intelligence we get with a whisper. Investigation we do with a yell." This policy was reiterated in February 1966 as an action which had been "positive in stopping attacks".(39) Later that year, Hubbard approved a memorandum which explained "How to do a NOISY investigation".(40) Having selected the target for harassment:
"You find out where he or she works or worked, doctor, dentist, friends, neighbours, anyone, and 'phone 'em up and say 'I am investigating Mr/Mrs ........ for criminal activities as he/she has been trying to prevent Man's freedom and is restricting my religious freedom ... You say now and then, 'I have already got some astounding facts ...' (Use a generality)".
Within weeks of my departure from Scientology, in 1983, two friends reported conversations in which a scientologist had told them, without any basis in reality, that I had received electric shock treatment.
The Guardian's Office was far better organized than any of the earlier Scientology Ministries of Propaganda and Security. Under Hubbard's direction, it ruled Scientology from 1966 until 1983.When current Scientology leader David Miscavige took the GO over, he claims that it controlled the directorships of every Church of Scientology.(41) It also had 1,100 full-time staff and numerous voluntary "Field Staff Members" by that time.
In the late 1960s, Hubbard's determination that a psychiatric conspiracy was ruling the world grew. Using the Guardian's Office, he set about taking over psychiatry. The abortive attempt by Deputy Guardian David Gaiman to gain control of the British National Association of Mental Health came during this period.(42) Hubbard blamed the Bank of England, (43) the Communists and the Fascists in turn for this supposed conspiracy. Among the secret objectives of Scientology were to
"contact and make friends with and organize all minority groups until we have the biggest group on the planet. By ... making friends with even the biggest enemies of the West, we will avert Fascism now taking over in the West."(44)
Shortly before, he had outlined the "vital targets" of Scientology:"
With reference to minority groups, Scientology has allied itself with other totalist groups ("cults") including the Unification Church, or Moonies and the Children of God (Family of Love). Scientology officials deny the registration in Strassbourg in December 1992 of FIREPHIM. This was allegedly a pact between the Moonies, COG, the Jehovah's Witnesses, the Raelians and even the Bahá'í.
In 1973, Hubbard created the most far reaching of his intelligence operations, Snow White. Under the Snow White directive, negative material about Scientology was to be expunged from government files and replaced with positive material. Robert Vaughn Young, who directed the propaganda aspects of Snow White, has recently told his story in Der Spiegel.(46) Operation Snow White was to discover the source of the supposed global attack upon Hubbard and his "humanitarian" teachings. To do so, a massive intelligence agency was brought into being. Snow White was given the "highest priority of all GO activity".(47)
The Guardian's Office had reached its peak by July 1977, when the FBI launched the largest raid in its history on GO offices. Eleven Scientology officials, including Hubbard's wife, Mary Sue, were convicted and sent to prison as a consequence of this raid.
The sentencing memorandum in USA v. Mary Sue Hubbard et al makes clear the scale of the offences committed by Hubbard's agents:
"The United States initiated the investigation which resulted in the instant indictment in view of the brazen, systematic and persistent burglaries of United States Government offices in Washington, D.C., and Los Angeles, California, over an extended period of at least some two years."
Additionally, the United States was confronted with the pervasive conduct of the defendants in this case in thwarting a federal Grand Jury investigation by harboring a fugitive, in effect forcefully kidnapping a witness who had decided to surrender to the federal authorities, submitting false evidence to the Grand Jury, destroying other evidence which might have been of valuable aid to its investigation, preparing a cover-up story, and encouraging and drilling a crucial witness to give false testimony under oath to that Grand Jury ... a review of the documents seized in the ... searches ... show the incredible and sweeping nature of the criminal conduct of the defendants and of the organization which they led.
These crimes include infiltration and theft of documents from a number of prominent private national and world organizations, law firms and newspapers; the execution of smear campaigns and baseless law suits to destroy private individuals who had attempted to exercise their First Amendment rights to freedom of expression; the framing of private citizens who had been critical of Scientology, including the forging of documents which led to the indictment of at least one innocent person; violation of the civil rights of prominent private figures and public officials.
These are but a few of the criminal acts not covered in the 'uncontested' stipulation of evidence ... defendant Heldt's assertion that 'the policy of the Church prohibits any illegality on the part of its members or staff...' is totally unfounded and incorrect. The evidence in this case ... establish[es] beyond peradventure that the Church and its leadership had, over the years, approved, condoned and engaged in gross and widespread illegality. One, indeed, wonders how it can even be suggested that the defendants and their organization did not make illegal activities part and parcel of their daily work."(48)
A similar prosecution convicted both scientologists and the Church of Scientology in Canada, in 1992. Scientologists had infiltrated the Attorney General's Ministry and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in the 1970s. Justice James Southey complained that rather than accepting responsibility for its wrongdoing, the Church of Scientology continued to blame those ordered to carry out the espionage work by Church leadership. The judge also said that he was satisfied that the Guardian's Office was "subject to the control of founder L. Ron Hubbard".(49)
Scientologists have been particularly eager to try and distance Hubbard from the activities of his Guardian's Office. However, almost ten years before the raid on the GO, Hubbard recorded a lecture which is still sold by Scientology organizations.(50) Having complained that a huge international conspiracy existed against him, Hubbard said,
"With all of this action being taken against us in the last 17 years ... it was vitally necessary that I isolate who it was on this planet who was attacking us ... The Organization, under the direction of Mary Sue [Hubbard], ... employed several professional intelligence agents who had long and successful professional backgrounds and they looked into this matter for us and the results of their activities - although still in progress - have told us all we needed to know with regard to any enemy we had on this planet.
1. Hubbard, The Aims of Scientology.
2. Guardian's Office document numbered 8591, Operations Definitions, used in evidence in USA v Mary Sue Hubbard: "BUTTON SURVEY: A comprehensive examination, inspection, researching or investigation of persons which [sic] have control or influence over an attacker's position of power to discover what they hate and love. Also the same activity in relation to the attacker to discover what he considers valuable or what he is protecting."
3. The Watchdog Committee, Scientology Policy Directive 19, The Integrity of Source, 7 July 1982: "No one except LRH [Hubbard] may cancel his issues."
4. The Corporations of Scientology, Church of Scientology International, 1989, p.24: "In the Scientology religion, the scriptures are all the spoken and written words of L. Ron Hubbard. The scriptures include millions of written words contained in books, films, various forms of issues and writings and several thousand tape recorded lectures."
5. Scientologists have to practise "Standard Technology" - following exactly the rules laid down for "auditing" or counselling by Hubbard, see definition in The Dianetics and Scientology Technical Dictionary. Scientologists are also expected to practise "Standard Administration", see HCOPL Standard Admin, 9 November 1968, Organization Executive Course, 1st edition, vol. 0, p.6.
6. Hubbard, HCOB, The Anti-Social Personality, the Anti-Scientologist, 27 September 1966, Technical Bulletins, 1st edition, vol. 6, p.177.
7. The Watchdog Committee, Scientology Policy Directive 28, Suppressive Act - Dealing with a Declared Suppressive Person, 13 August 1982.
8. Hubbard, HCOB, Technical Queries, 23 October 1975, Technical Bulletins, 1st edition, vol. 8, p.424, and HCOB, Verbal Tech:Penalties, 15 February 1979, Technical Bulletins, 1st edition, vol. 12, p.318.
10. Onions, Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, volume one, 1977, Clarendon Press, Oxford, under "game", definition 10.
11. Hubbard, Ole Doc Methusaleh, reprinted 1970, Daw Books, NY, p.66 "We are superior to them in culture and weapons and that makes them inferior to us. Fair game!"
12. The whole stated purpose of Dianetics and Scientology is to raise the recipient's "emotional tone level", e.g. The Hubbard Chart of Human Evaluationi, published as part of Hubbard, Science of Survival, 1951.
14. Hubbard, HCOPL, HCO (Division 1) - Ethics, Suppressive Acts, Suppression of Scientology and Scientologists, The Fair Game Law, 1 March 1965, reprinted in The Basic Staff Hat volume 1, East Grinstead, 1968. The claim that this Policy was superseded on 7 March is proved to be cosmetic by its publication in this 1968 internal publication. See also Justice Megaw in Hubbard v. Vosper, Court of Appeal, London, 1971, case no. 7360: "[the Policy Letter] went on to include among 'suppressive acts': '1st degree murder, arson, disintegration of persons or belongings not guilty of suppressive acts.' There can be no doubt that the last five words relate to the preceding word 'persons'. What does that mean? That it was, in the eyes of the organization in 1965, 'a suppressive act' to be guilty of 'first degree murder,' provided that the person you murdered had not been guilty of suppressive acts. The implication is obvious."
15. Guardian Order, Confidential - Intelligence Course, 9 September 1974, p.18.
16. USA v Jane Kember & Morris Budlong, US District Court for the District of Columbia, criminal no. 78 401 (2) & (3), Sentencing Memorandum of the United States of America, footnote, p.16: "Defendants ... have stated that the fair game policy continued in effect well after the indictment in this case and the conviction of the first nine co-defendants. Defendants claim that the policy was abrogated by the Church's Board of Directors in late July or early August, 1980."
17. HCOPL Ethics - Cancellation of Fair Game, More About, 22 July 1980.
18. HCOPL, Cancellation of Issues on Suppressive Acts and PTSes, 8 September 1983.
19. See for example the ruling in Wollersheim v. Church of Scientology of California, State of California Second Appellate District Division Seven, civ. no. B023193 (LASC no. C332827), p.A-4. Also "in re: wards B & G", Royal Courts of Justice, London, justice Latey decision, 23 July 1984, and the opinion in Church of Scientology of California v Armstrong, June 1984; and Casey Hill v Church of Scientology Toronto, file no. 24216.
20. Atack, A Piece of Blue Sky, p.126.
21. Hubbard, The Scientologist - A Manual on the Dissemination of Material, March 1955, Ability 1, reprinted in the TechnicalBulletins of Dianetics and Scientology, first edition, volume 2, p.157.
23. It subsequently became the internal police force of Scientology, housing the Ethics section.
24. See New Era Publications v Carol Publishing Group & Atack, NY, 1990, US District Court Southern District of New York, 89 Civ. 3845, and the same case at the US Court of Appeals, Second Circuit, no. 1204-1376, decided 24 May 1990.
25. Hubbard, HCOB, What We Expect of a Scientologist, 10 June 1960.
26. Hubbard, HCOB, Special Zone Plan - The Scientologist's Role in Life, 23 June 1960.
27. Lt. Warren Young, see Stipulation of Evidence in USA v Mary Sue Hubbard et al, US District Court for the District of Columbia, criminal case no. 78-401, p.205.
28. Hubbard, HCOPL, Dept of Govt Affairs, 15 August 1960. See also Hubbard, HCOPL, Dept of Government Relations, 22 August 1960 (Hubbard seems to have been unsure about the name of the Department) and Hubbard, HCOPL, Special Zone Dept, 30 August 1960.
29. Hubbard, HCOPL, Department of Official Affairs, 13 March 1961.
30. Hubbard, HCOPL, Black PR, 11 May 1971, PR series 7.
31. Wallis, The Road to Total Freedom, Heinmann, London, Columbia University, NY, 1976. In the chapter "The Scientological Career: From Casual Client to Deployable Agent". This remains the only major sociological study of the cult.
32. Hubbard, Sec ED, Enquiry Rumour UK, 9 February 1966, reprinted in the Foster report.
33. Hubbard, HCOPL, Attacks on Scientology (Additional Pol Ltr), 25 February 1966, reprinted in the Foster report which dates it at 15 February. There are several Policy Letters entitled Attacks on Scientology.
34. Hubbard, HCOPL, Public Investigation Section, 17 February 1966, reprinted in the Foster report. Emphasis in original.
35. Atack, A Piece of Blue Sky, pp.160-161.
36. Hubbard, HCOPL, The Guardian, 1 March 1966.
37. Ibid, where Hubbard describes these functions including the "Planetary Intelligence Unit".
38. Mary Sue Hubbard was originally the Guardian, then the position of Controller was created for her. She was shown as her husband's immediate deputy on all organizational charts or "Org Boards".
39. Hubbard, HCOPL, Attacks on Scientology (Continued), 18 February 1966.
40. Hubbard, HCO Executive Letter, How to do a Noisy Investigation, 5 September 1966. Reprinted in the Foster report.
41. Declaration of David Miscavige, in US District Court for the Central District of California, in Church of Scientology International v Fishman and Geertz, case no. CV 91-6426 HLH (Tx), 8 (?) February 1994, see especially p.17: "During the 1970s the GO operated as an entirely autonomous organization unchecked and unsupervised by the ecclesiastical management of the Church. The power of the GO was absolute ... They held all corporate directorships ... GO staff carried out illegal programs, such as the infiltration of government offices for which eleven members of the GO were prosecuted and convicted. There were also instances in which GO staff used unscrupulous means to deal with people they perceived as enemies of the Church -- means that were completely against Scientology tenets and policy, not to mention the law."
42. See Atack, A Piece of Blue Sky, pp.219-221. For a fuller description see C.H. Rolph, Believe What You Like, Andre Deutsch, London, 1973.
43. Hubbard, Ron's Journal 1967 (RJ67), tape recorded lecture, September 1967.
44. Hubbard, Flag Order 1890, Zones of Action, 26 March 1969.
46. Der Spiegel, 25 September 1995.
47. Fred Hare, Guardian Order 1206, The Snow White Programme, 22 June 1974.
48. Sentencing Memorandum in USA v MSH et al, US District Court for the District of Columbia, criminal case no. 78-401, pp.1-4 & 14.
49. Reported in the Toronto Globe and Mail, 12 September 1992.
50. Hubbard, Ron's Journal 1967 (RJ67). See also Hubbard, Concerning Intelligence, lecture transcript of 10 March 1970 which orders the theft of material from a Public Relations firm, once that firm has been isolated.
51. See also Guardian Order 802, Weekly Reports, 20 June 1973, which explains that Hubbard must receive a weekly report of all intelligence activity. For hubbard's knowledge of illegal activities see also A Piece of Blue Sky, p.227.